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ROYAL NAVY ESTABLISHMENTS

ROYAL NAVAL BARRACKS

"HMS VIVD" / "HMS DRAKE"

Updated:  25 February 2013 

The  Royal Naval Barracks at Keyham were first known as HMS "Vivid" but in 1934 it was renamed HMS "Drake".

HMS "Royal Adelaide" became the flag ship and depot ship at Devonport in 1860.  She remained as such until the end of 1889 and then became Devonport's Receiving Ship until she was moved to Chatham sometime between 1891 and 1895.  [1]

Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport.

HMS VIVID

In the meantime, work had commenced in fields and market gardens near Keyham Barton, in the parish of Stoke Damerell, in connection with the construction of a shore barracks.  Mr John Pethick's men started removing hillocks and preparing the ground on Monday January 12th 1880.  [2]

The contract for erecting the first buildings, worth £250,000, went to another local contractor, Mr James Matcham.  Unfortunately he was fatally injured while inspecting some of the works at the Barracks on October 12th 1882 and was replaced by Mr Alfred R Debnam.  [3]

The gymnasium at Royal Naval Barracks Devonport.

The buildings were completed in 1886.  However, there was much wrangling because some Naval hierarchy thought that the construction of such fine barracks was a complete waste of time and money.  [5]

Consequently it was not until Tuesday June 4th 1889 that nearly 500 men transferred into Block A of the Barracks from the depot ship HMS "Royal Adelaide", leaving just a warrant-officer and a small number of men to look after the ship.  [6]

The men occupied rooms A, B, C, and D, each of which was about 18 feet in height and had space for 125 hammocks.  All the buildings were of three stories and had gas lighting and electric bells.  The Marines had one room all to themselves.  The mess tables were arranged at right angles to the walls, with two rows of hammocks slung down the centre of the rooms.  The tables could be hauled up on ropes to leave the whole area clear for other purposes.  (6)

The gymnasium at the Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport, circa 1904.
From a postcard.

A small building between blocks A and B contained the galleys.  There were two large double ranges capable of cooking for 500 men and a smaller range for the warrant-officers.  Also available was an immense Drill Shed, open on the side facing A block, where the men could take their recreation on wet weather.  Each of the Blocks had wash places and drying rooms attached.  In another small building at the harbour end of the main accommodation blocks was the canteen and above that were five or six rooms for the use of the master-at-arms, who acted as barrack-master.  (6)

The officers’ quarters were in two buildings at the opposite end of the main blocks.  In one of the buildings were the mess room, recreational rooms (reading, smoking and billiards) and some of the officers’ cabins, each as large as a wardroom on board most ships.  The remainder of the cabins were in the second building.  The mess-room was already considered to be too small for all the officers when the barracks were full so a new one was going to be erected.  Eight tennis courts were also provided.  (6)

Some £3,000 was being spent on constructing a house for the captain but in the meantime he was using rooms in one of the officers’ buildings.  (6)

Elsewhere on the 21 acres of the site were a large parade ground, offices for the paymaster and stores for meat, vegetables and clothing.  [6]

Down nearer the waterside was a wooden Battery containing two six-inch, one five-inch and one four-inch breech-loading guns, one 64-pounder muzzle-loader (provided as a ‘curiosity’), a quick-firing six pounder and machine guns, the whole fitted for sea service.   (6)

At that time there were no Royal Navy shore establishments so there was no procedure for naming them, which meant that they had to take the names of existing naval vessels against which their costs could be accounted.  For the Royal Naval Barracks at Devonport that meant adopting the name of the Commander-in-Chief's official yacht, HMS "Vivid".

In 1894 a loft was installed for fifty-two homing pigeons.  [4]

The imposing clock tower was completed on Thursday August 20th 1896.  It housed a clock constructed by Messrs Gillet and Johnston of Croydon.   This had four faces and a large bell, which struck the hours.  The clock was driven by weights that ran the height of the structure plus many feet underground.  [7]

During the early part of 1897 the Admiralty discovered that at Devonport alone there were over 500 men, mainly stokers, who could not swim.  Instructions were immediately given for 60 of the men to be sent to Portsmouth for instruction in the swimming baths there.  More men were to follow when they returned to Devonport.  On February 18th 1897 the Admiralty announced that it would construct swimming baths in the north-eastern corner of the Devonport Barracks, near the existing washhouse and drying rooms.  It would be heated for all-year use.  [8]

RN Barracks Gate, Devonport.
The imposing clock tower at the Royal Naval Barracks.
From a postcard.
The Clock Tower and Guard House at the entrance to the R N Barracks, Devonport.

An Admiralty announcement in February 1897 said that HMS "Indus", at that time the guardship of the Reserve Fleet at Devonport, was to be converted into an accommodation hulk to help house the excessive number of sailors requiring berths in the Barracks.  However, as the estimated cost of the conversion ran into five figures they quickly abandoned the idea and instead proopsed to spend only £7,600 on turning her into a floating coal depot.  After a careful inspoection she was found to be unsuitable even for that menial task and in September 1897 she was put up for sale out of serviced instead.  [8a]

An excellent description of the Barracks was given by "The Navy and Army Illustrated" in August 1897.  At that time there were two main blocks, each containing four barrack rooms.  The officers' quarters, wash-house, cook-house, canteens, drill shed and administrative offices were all in separate buildings.  Captain Charles Johnstone, who had been appointed the officer in command in May 1896, had his own residence and at the entrance to the Barracks was the guard-house and clock tower, which was surmounted by the inevitable semaphore.  [8b]

The Clock Tower and Guard House at the entrance to the R N Barracks, Devonport, 1897.
©  Hudson & Kearns, London.

Each of the eight barrack-rooms could accommodate hammocks for 125 men.  In fact upwards of 1,500 men could be messed as a large number of the men always slept outside the Barracks, often at home.  Each room was laid out as far as possible like a ship's mess deck while each Block had a lofty and spacious basement in which the lavatories were located and storage provided for hammocks and baggage: sometimes they were even used for drill when the drill -shed was in use for other purposes.  [8b]

A warrant-officer was in charge of each barrack-room had a room of his own and there was accommodation for chief petty officers.  [8b]

The drill-shed was a very fine building with an asphalt floor and a flight of steps on one side leading to the parade ground.  [8b]

A baarck room at the R N Barracks, Devonport, 1897.
A barrack room at the R N Barracks, Devonport, 1897.
©  Hudson & Kearns, London.
The Canteen at the R N Barracks, Devonport, 1897.

Adjoining the canteen was a large room fitted out with small round tables and stools,, where the men could sit to discuss their beer or the affairs of the nation.  Smoking concerts and sing-songs were held there frequently.  The canteen itself, where the seaman could obtain anything from a glass of beer to a bootlace, was only open at specific times.  A recent innovation was to use the skittle-alley, which was not much in demand, as a coffee canteen and so successful was had this been that a separate building was now under construction for that purpose.  Recreation-rooms were also provided, including tables for billiards and an American bowling alley.  [8b]

The Canteen at the R N Barracks, Devonport, 1897.
©  Hudson & Kearns, London.

In the wash-house were boilers, washing troughs, a mangle and a centrifugal wringer, which the men were allowed to access at all hours in order to avoid overcrowding.  All the buildings were heated by either stoves or fireplaces.  [8b]

Outside the main buildings was the Battery, which had recently been moved by means of rails to make room for the Dockyard extension.  This contained one 9.2 inch 22-ton breech-loading gun; two 6-inch, one 5-inch and one 4-inch breech-loading guns on different mountings; one 4-inch quick-firing gun; one 9-inch muzzle-loading gun; a 9-pounder field gun; a 6-pounder Hotchkiss gun; and two Nordenfelt guns.  [8b]

The Wash-House at the R N Barracks, Devonport, 1897.
The Wash-House at the R N Barracks, Devonport, 1897.
©  Hudson & Kearns, London.
The Cook-House, R N Barracks, Devonport, 1897.

A new cricket pitch was in the process of being laid out in addition to the officers' tennis lawns and five tennis courts for the men.  The cricket area was utilised during the summer of 1897 as a playground for some 500 youngsters at a party organised by the Captain and his wife, with swings being erected for the occasion.  [8b]

There were two horses kept in the Stable Block, one, named "Tom", being the charger of Colonel Ducat, which was to be used only on light work.  [8b]

 

The Cook-House, R N Barracks, Devonport, 1897.
©  Hudson & Kearns, London.

Supporting Captain Johnstone were Commander Charles W Winnginton-Ingram, who was in charge of executive duties, and Commander R B Colmore, who was superintendent of drafting, along with five Lieutenants, a staff-commander, and no fewer than three Paymasters, one of whom was engaged solely in looking after the victualling and clothing department.  The barrack master was a Chief Boatswain and there were five other warrant officers and a full staff of instructors.  [8b]

The training of homing pigeons was started by the previous commanding officer but this had been discontinued by August 1897 and the pigeons transferred to Mount Wise.  However, the cotes remained in place and some pigeons still returned there despite the discouragement of no food being provided for them.  [8b]

In February 1898 Messrs Matcham & Company, of Plymouth, whose founder had erected the original buildings, won the contract to build a new accommodation block for 1,000 men.  This was to be sited overlooking Weston Mill Lake but in line with the existing blocks.  The second part of the contract was for new officers' quarters, which were to include a spacious mess hall.  This was to be built to the south of the existing officers' quarters and adjacent to the grounds of the captain's residence.  Although the exterior would be similar to the existing buildings the interior would be 'on a more elaborate scale'.  The contract was to be commenced immediately.  [9]

The Admiralty were at that time in negotiations for the purchase of a further seven to eight acres of land upon which to create a gunnery school to replace HMS "Cambridge".  [9] 

Work started on the extension in March 1898 but the outcome was somewhat larger than the above description would suggest.  It is not known if the contract was changed or if the apparent difference was just a piece of bad reporting.  Anyway, in May 1900 the work was well underway and consisted of five blocks, two for the men at the northern end of the Barracks and three for the officers at the southern end.  The work was being carried out under the direct supervision of Mr Munro Wilson, Admiralty civil engineer, acting on behalf of Major E R Kenyon, Royal Engineers, the superintending engineer of Devonport Royal Dockyard.  [10]

It was hoped to complete work on the men's accommodation block by the end of 1900.  Although externally similar to the existing blocks it was much improved inside.  On the ground floors were the stores and lavatories, with the accommodation above.  The cook-house and the latrines were placed between the two new buildings, similar to the existing ones.  [10]

Of the accommodation for the officers, which it was hoped would be finished by the end of 1901, one of the blocks was to contain the mess-room, a library, a billiard-room, a breakfast-room, kitchens and stores.  This was the centre block, which was distinguished by having a belvedere look-out tower on the top.  The other two blocks consisted of private rooms only.  [10]

The dining hall was described as 'the finest of its kind in the district' and could be used as a ballroom.  At one end was a musicians' gallery and at the other a fireplace over which was a carving of Drake's encounter with the Spanish Armada.  All the buildings had electric lighting and warm air heating.  [11]

There was much improvement work going on outside the Barracks, too.  The Great Western railway were building Keyham Station, the Devonport & District Tramways Company was constructing their tramway from Morice Square, Devonport to Camel's Head right outside the main gate, which would be a useful link between the Barracks and the Royal Naval Engineering College.  The Dockyard Gate was also about to be moved to face St Levan Road.  A further extension to the Barracks was also anticipated.  [10]

The Hospital or Sick Quaryers at the Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport.

The Hospital or Sick Quarters at the Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport.
From a postcard.

The Sick Quarters were built in 1901 by Messrs Tozer & Son, of Plymouth.  It was hoped that it would be ready for occupation in January 1902.  Built of yellow Newton brick with Portland stone dressings, it had accommodation for 40 patients in four wards and would be able to relieve the heavy pressure made on the resources of the Royal Naval hospital at Stonehouse.  Alongside the waiting-room was a room fitted with hammock hooks, where special cases could be attended to.  The kitchens were at the rear of the building and connected to it my means of a glass-sided covered corridor.  Meals could be conveyed to the upper floors by means of what they called a 'trunk', which was presumably a food lift.  The wards were lit by gas and heated by steam.  On the top floor was a mess-room for the staff and one for the dental surgeon.  To the right of the main entrance was the mortuary and it was proposed to erect a disinfecting-room at the rear of the building. [12]

There was a Royal visit on Saturday March 8th 1902, when HM King Edward VII, along with Queen Alexandra and the young Princess Victoria, called to present 280 China (Boxer Rebellion) and 60 South Africa (Boer War) service medals.  [4]

On Friday January 23rd 1903 a ball was held to formally inaugurate the new Officers' Quarters, which had accommodation for 106 officers compared to only 34 in the old building.  It was revealed that Oak had been extensively used throughout and the entrance-hall, dining-hall and billiard-room were decorated with pillars of Torquay marble.  In addition to the rooms already mentioned there were several tea-rooms and servants' quarters and bathrooms.  The furnishing of the Quarters had been arranged by a Furnishing Committee but was largely the inspiration of Commander F G Eyre.  [13]

The old building found a new use as accommodation for 60 sub-lieutenants from HMS "Excellent" at Portsmouth who were sent to Devonport to receive torpedo training aboard HMS "Dreadnought", a tender attached to HMS "Defiance".  [13]

In January 1903 it was reported that the following buildings were under construction within the Barracks: swimming baths; bowling alley; provost establishment; carpenters' shop; blacksmiths' shop; painters' shop; barrack-master's stores; and a new drying ground, twice the size of the old one, as well as converting the old Sick Quarters into a chief petty officers' mess.  [13]

The foundation stone for the Church of Saint Nicholas was laid by the Commander-in-Chief, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward H Seymour, GCB OM LLD, on March 16th 1905.  [14]

During April 1905 the former Officers' Quarters were taken over as the Warrant-officers' mess.  By means of two men sharing a room accommodation has been made for 42 WO's.  Until then the warrant-officers were allowed to live at home with their families, for which they were paid an allowance.  [15]

Plans were also announced in April 1905 for a new building to house the gunnery school, HMS "Cambridge".  A site to the west of the Church was ear-marked for it along with a site on the harbour side, near the parade ground.  [15]

The much appreciated swimming bath was used for the first time on Tuesday May 16th 1905.  Measuring 82 feet long by 30 feet wide, it was said to be the only one of its dimensions in the Three Towns.  The depth of the water rose from 4 feet at one end to 7 feet at the other.  At each end was a gallery and the whole pool was surrounded by 50 dressing-boxes of varnished pitchpine.  So popular was the new facility that on one evening in the first week there were between 200 and 300 men using it.  [16]

Further work was carried out in 1906 when the gymnasium, squash court and No. 1 Battery were completed.  [4]
The new 1906 gymnasium in the RN Barracks, Devonport.
The new 1906 gymnasium in the RN Barracks, Devonport.
From a postcard.

On Monday February 18th 1907 the Bishop of Exeter dedicated St Nicholas's Church, which was followed on August 18th that year by the dedication of an organ.  [17]

The guardhouse at the main gate was the last building to be erected, also in 1907.  [7]

Gunnery training was transferred to the Naval Barracks from Wednesday October 30th 1907, with training re-commencing on the following Monday, November 4th.  [4]

It should be mentioned that on November 20th 1912 the Admiralty sold the Commander-in-Chief's yacht, HMS "Vivid", and she sailed almost immediately for Glasgow where she was to be used to teach practical seamanship and navigation in connection with the Royal technical College at Glasgow.  [17a]

To relieve overcrowding during the Great War, Johnstone Terrace Elementary School was taken over by the Royal Navy on April 4th 1917.  [18]

Devonport Navy Week was held for the first time between Tuesday August 21st and Saturday August 25th 1928, the year after the first ever Navy Week was held at Portsmouth.  [7]

In the following October 1928 a theatre was opened in what had previously been the cinema and beer hall.  [4]

HMS DRAKE

The custom of holding an annual "Drake Dinner" was started in the wardroom on Monday July 31st 1933 and at the Dinner it was suggested that the Barracks be renamed HMS Drake.  The Admiralty gave its approval to this suggestion and on Monday January 1st 1934 HMS "Vivid" was renamed HMS "Drake".  [19]

New cap ribbons were issued on Friday January 19th 1934.  [20]

During the Second World War the Barracks did not escape unscathed.  An air raid on the night of Monday/Tuesday April 21st/22nd 1941, when the whole of Devonport suffered, brought about the deaths of 113 sailors who were occupying Boscawen Block.  [7]

The Royal naval Barracks, Devonport, from the air.
The Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport, from the air.
From a postcard.
©  Surrey Flying Services.

Mr Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister, accompanied by the First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Dudley Pound and Lady Astor MP, visited the Barracks during a tour of Plymouth on May 2nd 1941.  One of the sights they saw was a number of coffins lying in the Barrack's gymnasium alongside some forty injured men, separated only by a low curtain.  [5]

It is said that 273 Devonport based vessels, from small craft to battleships, never returned to their port and that 13,837 men never saw HMS Drake again  [5].  Their names are recorded in a Book of Remembrance in the Church of St Nicholas.  The unveiling and dedication service was held on Wednesday May 12th 1948, before every officer and naval rating, including members of the Women's Royal Naval Service, not on essential duties in the Barracks.  The Commodore, Commodore S M Raw, invited the Commander-in-Chief, Admiral Sir Robert L Burnett, to perform the ceremony.  The service was conducted jointly by the Reverend D Vaughan-Edwards (Church of England), the Reverend D Stewart (Church of Scotland and Free Churches) and the Reverend E Glynn (Roman Catholic).    [20a]

The Book of Remembrance was (and hopefully still is) mounted in a special glass case immediately in front of great oak tablets which list the lost ships.  Each page of the Book, which was provided by the Barracks' Canteen Committee, contains the names of twenty naval men who had given their lives.  Behind the glass case was another oak tablet bearing Drake's Prayer: 'Oh Lord God, when Thou givest to Thy servants to endeavour any great matter, grant us also to know that it is not the beginning, but the continuing of the same until it is thoroughly finished, which yieldeth the true glory; thro Him who, for the finishing of Thy work, laid down his life, our Redeemer, Jesus Christ.'  [20a]

Naval personnel were first demobbed from HMS Drake on the morning of Monday June 18th 1945.  The first 130 men were former Naval pensioners who had been called back to the service as instructors.  They were fitted out with a new "civvy rig" and, with money in their pockets, they boarded buses to pass through the Barrack gates and back to a normal retirement.  The Commander-in-Chief, Admiral Sir Ralph Leatham, and the commanding officer of the Barracks, Commodore R L B Cunliffe. were amongst those who wished them well.  [7a]

Following this, the Royal Naval Demobilization Centre was set up at the former Saint Budeaux Barracks.  As from Monday November 4th 1946 the work of demobilization returned to the main Barracks.  [7b]

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother presented new Queen's Colours to the Plymouth Command at HMS Drake on March 18th 1953.  That year also saw the resignation of the accommodation blocks.  [5]

The Cunningham and Fraser Blocks were inaugurated in 1955 in the presence of both Admirals of the Fleet, Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope and Lord Fraser of North Cape.  [5]

Also in 1955 the last Royal Navy horse at Devonport, "Royalty", and his horseman, Jim Wright, retired.  Their duties included mowing the grass at the Devonport services Rugby Ground and carting in the beer for special occasions.  "Royalty" was 'piped over the side' in the customary way by the Royal Marine Band.  [5]

On Wednesday July 5th 1961 the First Lord of the Admiralty announced in the House of Lords that in future most of the training carried out at Naval barracks would be transferred to the training schools and that henceforth the barracks would become the accounting body and a place of accommodation only.  [7]

As a result, on Wednesday November 1st 1961 the title Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport, was officially dropped and replaced by its ships name of "HMS Drake".  Apparently, passing bus conductors were officially asked to call out the new name and refrain from shouting 'Barracks'.   However, the destination blinds remained unchanged and still showed "R N Barracks" for some time afterwards.  [7]

With the detonation of a thunderflash, the Commodore launched the demolition of Hawkins Block in preparation for redevelopment.  The story is told that out of the smoke of the thunderflash appeared a sailor, face blackened, who breathlessly saluted the Commodore and stated that he had been in the building since 1947 awaiting his demob and requested permission to 'go ashore'.  [5]

On Monday February 11th 1969 the Wrens (Women's Royal Naval Service) moved in to their new accommodation within the Barracks, which was known as Raleigh Block.  The opening ceremony was performed by Lady Mills, the wife of the Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth, Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Mills after a short religious service had been held on the wind-swept car park outside.  Commodore J M Henry, commodore of HMS Drake, was also present.  [21]

Raleigh Block not only had central heating but the 125 Wrens also had the benefit of a hairdressers, TV rooms and sick quarters.  First Officer (equal to Lieutenant-Commander) Dorothy E Talma was their commanding officer.   [20]

In 1973 the Wrens moved into a new accommodation block named after Dame Jocelyn Woolcombe DBE, who had been the Director of the WRNS between 1946 and 1950.  [5]

Accommodation especially for submariners, the Benbow Block, was opened in 1975. During the 1970s other new buildings were opened, the Rodney Block for junior ratings and the Armada Block for junior and senior officers.  The latter was connected to the main wardroom by a 'flying corridor'.  [5]

Over the years there has been much debate about how or why HMS Drake gained the nickname of "Guzz".  During the 1970s it was revealed by a retired Royal Navy Wireless Operator that "GUZZ" was the call sign for the Wireless Station then situated at Devil's Point, Stonehouse.   [5]


Sources (incomplete):

[1]  Warlow, Lieutenant-Commander B, RN, "Shore Establishments of the Royal Navy", Maritime Books, Liskeard, Cornwall, 2nd edition, 2000, ISBN 0-907771-73-4.

[2]  Source not recorded.

[3]  SEE Who was Who in Plymouth History section - Mr James Matcham.

[4]  Anderson, C C, and Burrows, E, "The Drum Beats Still..." 2nd revised edition, October 1952.

[5]  Brimacombe, Peter, "The History of HMS Drake", Rodney Brimacombe, Mor Marketing, Plymouth, July 1992.

[6]  "The Royal Naval Barracks, Keyham", Naval and Military Record, June 6th 1889.

[7]  "The History of HMS Drake", Published by the Wardroom, HMS Drake, December 1973.

[7a]  "Civilians Again: Demobilisation At Taunton: Naval Men Go at Devonport", Western Morning News, Plymouth, June 19th 1945.

[7b]  "New Demob Centre at RN Barracks: St Budeaux Closed", Western Evening Herald, Plymouth, November 5th 1946.

[8]  "Swimming Bath for Seamen", Naval and Military Record, February 18th 1897.

[8a]  "Increased Naval Accommodation at Devonport", Naval and Military Record, February 25th 1897; and "The Battleship Indus", Naval and Military Record, September 2nd 1897, courtesy of the Plymouth Local and Naval Studies Library.

[8b]  "The Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport", The Navy and Army Illustrated, London, August 6th 1897.

[9]  "Extension of the Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport: A Plymouth Tender Accepted", Naval and Military Record, February 17th 1898.

[10]  "Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport: The New Buildings", Naval and Military Record, May 3rd 1900.

[11]  "Devonport: The Extension of the Naval Depot", Naval and Military Record, May 1st 1902.

[12]  "The New Naval Hospital at Keyham", Naval and Military Record, July 4th 1901; and "Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport: New Sick Quarters", Naval and Military Record, June 11th 1903.

[13]  "Devonport: Officers' Quarters at the Royal Naval Barracks", Naval and Military Record, January 15th 1903.

[14]  "R N Barracks, Devonport: The New Church: Foundation-stone Laying by the Commander-in-Chief", Naval and Military Record, March 23rd 1905.  SEE Churches section - Church of Saint Nicholas.

[15]  "Devonport: Transfer of the Gunnery School and Warrant Officers at the Depot", Naval and Military Record, April 27th 1905.

[16]  "Devonport: Valuable Acquisition at the R N Depot", Naval and Military Record, May 25th 1905.

[17]  SEE Churches section - Church of Saint Nicholas.

[17a]  Date from [1] above; and "The Navy", Naval and Military Record, London, November 27th 1912.

[18]  Source not recorded.

[19]  "Plymouth Hero of History: Sir Francis Drake Tradition: Important Naval Innovations", Western Morning News, Plymouth, August 1st 1933.

[20]  "New Cap Ribbons For Men of HMS Drake: Plymouth's Link with Her Naval hero", Western Evening Herald, Plymouth, January 20th 1934.  For some reason the official HMS Drake history [SEE 7 above] quotes January 24th 1934.

[20a]  "In Memory of 13,000: RN Book and Tablets: Unveiled at Plymouth", Western Morning News, Plymouth, May 13th 1948.

[21]  "Wrens shift into all-mod-con Drake quarters", Western Evening Herald, Plymouth, February 11th 1969.

©  Brian Moseley, Plymouth, UK

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